By Dr. Nick Touran, Ph.D., P.E., , Reading time: 15 minutes
A nuclear reactor is a system that contains and controls sustained nuclear chain reactions. Reactors are used for generating electricity, moving aircraft carriers and submarines, producing medical isotopes for imaging and cancer treatment, and for conducting research.
Fuel, made up of heavy atoms that split when they absorb neutrons, is placed into the reactor vessel (basically a large tank) along with a small neutron source. The neutrons start a chain reaction where each atom that splits releases more neutrons that cause other atoms to split. Each time an atom splits, it releases large amounts of energy in the form of heat. The heat is carried out of the reactor by coolant, which is most commonly just plain water. The coolant heats up and goes off to a turbine to spin a generator or drive shaft. Nuclear reactors are just exotic heat sources.
The core of the reactor contains all of the nuclear fuel and generates all of the heat. It contains low-enriched uranium (<5% U-235), control systems, and structural materials. The core can contain hundreds of thousands of individual fuel pins.
The coolant is the material that passes through the core, transferring the heat from the fuel to a turbine. It could be water, heavy-water, liquid sodium, helium, or something else. In the US fleet of power reactors, water is the standard.
The turbine transfers the heat from the coolant to electricity, just like in a fossil-fuel plant.
The containment is the structure that separates the reactor from the environment. These are usually dome-shaped, made of high-density, steel-reinforced concrete. Chernobyl did not have a containment to speak of.
Cooling towers are needed by some plants to dump the excess heat that cannot be converted to energy due to the laws of thermodynamics. These are the hyperbolic icons of nuclear energy. They emit only clean water vapor.
The animation above (reproduced from the NRC) shows a nuclear reactor heating up water and whirling a generator to produce electricity. It captures the essence of the system well. The water coming into the condenser and then going right back out is water from a river, lake, or ocean. It goes out the cooling towers. As you can see, this water does not go near the radioactivity, which is in the reactor vessel.
The smallest unit of the reactor is the fuel pin. These are typically uranium-oxide (UO2), but can take on other forms, including thorium-bearing material. They are often surrounded by a metal tube (called the cladding) to keep fission products from escaping into the coolant.
Fuel assemblies are bundles of fuel pins. Fuel is put in and taken out of the reactor in assemblies. The assemblies have some structural material to keep the pins close but not touching, so that there’s room for coolant.
This is a full core, made up of several hundred assemblies. Some assemblies are control assemblies. Various fuel assemblies around the core have different fuel in them. They vary in enrichment and age, among other parameters. The assemblies may also vary with height, with different enrichments at the top of the core from those at the bottom.
There are many different kinds of nuclear fuel forms, moderators, and cooling materials can be used in a nuclear reactor. As a result, there are thousands of different possible nuclear reactor designs. Here, we discuss a few of the designs that have been built before, but don’t limit your imagination; over a million other reactor designs are possible. Dream up your own! Or, for fun you can try our Random Reactor Concept Generator or see a list of over a million options.
A incomplete subset of reactor types broken down by coolant and moderator is shown below. For simplicity, we limit it to reactors that have either been built, are under construction, or have been the subject of significant experimentation and/or study. Reactors concepts in all boxes have been proposed, and some reactors that don’t fit in the below boxes have been operated (e.g. LAPRE, LAMPRE, etc.)
|Water||Heavy water||Graphite||Not moderated||Beryllium||Organic||Hydrogen / Hydride|
Light-water reactors (LWR)
Steam-cooled fast reactors1
|Molten sodium metal||
Sodium-Graphite Reactors (SGR)
Sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFR)
|Molten lead metal||
Lead-cooled fast reactors
Heavy Water Gas Cooled Reactors (HWGCR)
Helium-cooled fast reactors1
|Organic (e.g. terphenyl)||
Organic moderated reactors (OMR)
Nuclear Thermal Rockets
Another view of the options is shown below:
graph TD TRL([Choose\ntechnology\nreadiness\nlevel]) --> High --> Construction TRL --> MedT[Medium] --> Construction TRL --> Low --> Construction Construction([Choose\nconstruction\nstyle]) --> Modular --> Size Construction --> Stick --> Size Size([Choose\nsize]) --> Micro --> Cycle Size --> Small --> Cycle Size --> Medium --> Cycle Size --> Large --> Cycle Size --> Gargantuan --> Cycle Cycle([Choose\npower cycle]) --> Rankine --> Moderator Cycle --> Brayton -->Moderator Cycle --> Stirling -->Moderator Cycle --> Piston --> Moderator Cycle --> Chemical --> Moderator Cycle --> Thermionic --> Moderator Cycle --> Ion[Ion capture] --> Moderator Cycle --> Inturbine[In-\nturbine\ncombustion] --> Moderator Cycle --> Other --> Moderator Moderator([Choose\nmoderator]) --> MWater[Water] --> FFM Moderator --> MHW[Heavy Water] --> FFM Moderator --> None --> FFM Moderator --> Graphite --> FFM Moderator --> Beryllium --> FFM Moderator --> MOrganic[Organic] --> FFM Moderator --> Hydride --> FFM FFM([Choose\nfuel\nform]) --> Oxide --> FC FFM --> Metal --> FC FFM --> Nitride --> FC FFM --> Carbide --> FC FFM --> TRISO --> FC FFM --> MSF[Molten salt] --> FC FFM --> LMF[Liquid metal] --> FC FC([Choose\nfuel\ncycle]) --> LEU[LEU converter] --> Coolant FC --> NU[Natural uranium\nconverter] --> Coolant FC --> HALEU[HALEU converter] --> Coolant FC --> HEU[HEU burner] --> Coolant FC --> PU[Plutonium burner] --> Coolant FC --> UPU[U-Pu breeder] --> Coolant FC --> THU[Th-U breeder] --> Coolant Coolant([Choose\ncoolant]) --> Gas --> CO2 Gas --> Nitrogen Gas --> He Gas --> Air Coolant --> Water --> LW["Light\nwater"] --> BWR LW --> PWR LW --> Steam Water --> HW["Heavy\nwater"] Coolant --> LM[Liquid Metal] --> Na["Sodium/\nNaK"] LM --> Lead["Lead/\nPbBi"] LM --> Mercury Coolant --> Salt["Molten\nSalt"] Salt --> Fluoride Salt --> Chloride Coolant --> Organic Coolant --> Sulfur Coolant --> LH["Liquid\nHydrogen"] Coolant --> HP["Heat\nPipe"] Coolant --> OTH["Other\n(Sulfate,\nplasma,\ndust)"]
The most common type of reactor. The PWR uses regular old water as a coolant. The primary cooling water is kept at very high pressure so it does not boil. It goes through a heat exchanger, transferring heat to a secondary coolant loop, which then spins the turbine. These use oxide fuel pellets stacked in zirconium tubes. They could possibly burn thorium or plutonium fuel as well.
Strong negative void coefficient — reactor cools down if water starts bubbling because the coolant is the moderator, which is required to sustain the chain reaction
Secondary loop keeps radioactive stuff away from turbines, making maintenance easy.
Very much operating experience has been accumulated and the designs and procedures have been largely optimized.
Second most common, the BWR is similar to the PWR in many ways. However, they only have one coolant loop. The hot nuclear fuel boils water as it goes out the top of the reactor, where the steam heads over to the turbine to spin it.
CANDUs are a Canadian design found in Canada and around the world. They contain heavy water, where the Hydrogen in H2O has an extra neutron (making it Deuterium instead of Hydrogen). Deuterium absorbs many fewer neutrons than Hydrogen, and CANDUs can operate using only natural uranium instead of enriched.
These reactors are cooled by liquid sodium metal. Sodium is heavier than hydrogen, a fact that leads to the neutrons moving around at higher speeds (hence fast). These can use metal or oxide fuel, and burn a wide variety of fuels.
Update! There is now a full page discussing MSRs in detail. Molten Salt Reactor’s (MSRs) are the internet’s favorite reactor. They are unique so far in that they use fluid fuel.
Radioactive gaseous fission products are not contained in small pins, as they are in typical reactors. So if there is a containment breach, all the fission gases can release instead of just the gases from one tiny pin. This necessitates things like triple-redundant containments, etc. and can be handled.
The presence of an online reprocessing facility with incoming pre-melted fuel is a proliferation concern. The operator could divert Pa-233 to provide a small stream of nearly pure weapons-grade U-233. Also, the entire uranium inventory can be separated without much effort. In his autobiography, Alvin Weinberg explains how this was done at Oak Ridge National Lab: “It was a remarkable feat! In only 4 days all of the 218 kg of uranium in the reactor were separated from the intensely radioactive fission products and its radioactivity reduced five billion-fold.”
Very little operating experience, though a successful test reactor was operated in the 1960s
HTGRs use little pellets of fuel backed into either hexagonal compacts or into larger pebbles (in the prismatic and pebble-bed designs). Gas such as helium or carbon dioxide is passed through the reactor rapidly to cool it. Due to their low power density, these reactors are seen as promising for using nuclear energy outside of electricity: in transportation, in industry, and in residential regimes. They are not particularly good at just producing electricity.